Hybridization and the evolution ecology of sunflowers
Hybrid crops, an important part of modern agriculture, rely on the development of male and female heterotic gene pools in sunflowers, heterotic gene pools were developed through the use of crop. Effective weed management requires an understanding of the general mechanisms underlying plant invasiveness the proposed research will investigate gene flow through sexual hybridization and backcrossing (ie, introgression) as a mechanism contributing to increased invasiveness in weedy sunflowers the common weed sunflower (helianthus annuus) is postulated to have colonized texas by. The genomics of local adaptation is an increasingly active field, providing insights into the forces driving ecological speciation and the repeatability of evolution demography and gene flow play an important role in determining the paths by which parallel evolution occurs and the genomic signatures of adaptation in the annual sunflowers, hybridization between species has repeatedly led to. Helianthus anomalus (western sunflower) is a species of plants in the sunflower family, found in the southwestern united states helianthus anomalus is of particular interest due to its genetics it was produced via hybridization of two other sunflower species, h annuus and h petiolaris, multiple times between approximately 60,000 and 200,000 years ago. The sunflower that is most common in finnish gardens is perennial sunflower (also known as showy sunflower, hybrid prairie sunflower, mountain sunflower, cheerful sunflower, h x laetiflorus), an almost-native variety which is a tenacious natural hybrid of two species that can survive a long time in old gardens.
The evolution of haploid chromosome numbers in the sunflower family lucie mota 1 centre for functional ecology (cfe), department of life sciences, university of coimbra, coimbra, portugal the evolution of haploid chromosome numbers was analyzed using two approaches, ancient hybridization and chromosome number evolution. Kristin l mercer, donald l wyse and ruth g shaw, effects of competition on the fitness of wild and crop‐wild hybrid sunflower from a diversity of wild populations and crop lines, evolution, 60, 10, (2044-2055), (2007. Hybridization has been known at least since the time of linnaeus, and has been discussed frequently by evolu- tionists [2,5,6] following darwin’s lead in the chapter. Hybridization between naturally co-occurring species that normally do not interbreed is being documented following anthropogenic habitat modifications for an increasing number of taxa here, we evaluate the mechanisms by which disturbance promotes hybridization and highlight the utility of human-caused hybridization for understanding evolution.
Hybridization between crops and wild species has been linked to the evolution of more aggressive weeds in contrast, extensive hybridization with endangered wild relatives. With the development of transgenic crops, concern has been expressed regarding the possible escape of genetically-engineered genes via hybridization with wild relatives this is a potential hazard for sunflowers because wild sunflowers occur as weeds in fields where cultivated sunflowers are grown. 2007), sunflower is an excellent system for studying the fitness effects of crop-derived alleles in hybrid populations our primary objectives were to (i) investigate allele frequency. Although there are many studies of the evolution and ecology of hybrid zones, few extend over long enough time periods to track evolutionary changes in the zones or assess the ultimate outcome of hybridization here we describe the current genetic and morphological composition of a hybrid sunflower population relative to its initial makeup 50 years ago.
Evolution, ecology, genetics, and genomics at the university of rochester official web page for the e2g2 program at the university of rochester. Trends in ecology & evolution issue 2, february 2003, pages 94-101 contemporary evolution meets conservation biology author links open overlay panel craig a stockwell 1 andrew p hendry 2 michael t kinnison 3 canids, salmonids and sunflowers) morphology (other aspects likely) hybridization among wild species, and between wild and. The sunflower work provides compelling evidence that hybridization facilitated the colonization of novel habitats by three sunflower species, h anomalus, h deserticola, and h paradoxus, and suggests a mechanism (complementary gene action) by which this occurred.
Register to nature research ecology & evolution community the nature research ecology & evolution community provides a forum for the sharing and discussion of news and opinion in ecology and evolutionary biology. Hybrid speciation and the evolution of hybrid genomes hybridization and conservation revisiting a classic case of introgression: hybridization and gene flow in californian sunflowers (pages 2630–2643. The calf was a wholphin, a hybrid that was intermediate to its parents in some characteristics, like having 66 teeth compared with the bottlenose’s 88 and the 44 of the false killer whale, a. Hybridization has played a major role in the evolution of wild sunflowers, contributing both to adaptation within species and to the origin of entirely new species. New species may arise via hybridization and without a change in ploidy this process, termed homoploid hybrid speciation, is theoretically difficult because it requires the development of reproductive barriers in sympatry or parapatry theory suggests that isolation may arise through rapid karyotypic evolution and/or ecological divergence of hybrid neospecies.
Hybridization and the evolution ecology of sunflowers
The advanced topics in ecology and evolutionary biology course kicks off tomorrow at 9:40 the instructors for this semester will be justin ramsey, dave lambert and rich glor below is a schedule of the instructors and associated topics. Whether interspecific hybridization is important as a mechanism that generates biological diversity is a matter of controversy whereas some authors focus on the potential of hybridization as a source of genetic variation, functional novelty and new species, others argue against any important role, because reduced fitness would typically render hybrids an evolutionary dead end. Here, we test the hypothesis of rapid hybrid speciation by estimating the sizes of parental species chromosomal blocks in helianthus anomalus, a wild sunflower species derived via hybridization between h annuus and h petiolaris. Abstract— although there are many studies of the evolution and ecology of hybrid zones, few extend over long enough time periods to track evolutionary changes in the zones or assess the ultimate outcome of hybridization.
Hybridization between these species was hypothesized based on mitochondrial introgression (morando, avila, turner, & sites, 2007), and was further tested by olave et al that included more samples, three nuclear genes and morphological data in a phylogeographic framework. In all three genera, i am examining how hybridization has shaped evolution, including the origin of new hybrid species, the breeding of modern lineages of domesticated plants, and the spread of invasive species. Gene duplication and the evolution of photoperiodic flowering in helianthus annuus 18th international sunflower conference, mar del plata, argentina rowe, hc, dk ro, and lh rieseberg 2012 response of sunflower (helianthus annuus l) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.
Natural hybridization and evolution oxford series in ecology and evolution edited by robert m may and paul h harvey the comparative method in evolutionary biology paul h harvey and mark d pagel the causes of molecular evolution john h gillespie dunnock behaviour and social evolution n b davies natural selection: domains, levels, and challenges george c williams behaviour and social. Trends in ecology & evolution intelligent, rewarding, and important mike arnold presents the most extensive exposition on record for one side of an argument that has deep roots in evolutionary biology.